UroGynecology Bridgeport

Pelvic Organ Prolapse: Treatment and Surgery

Pelvic organ prolapse results in a bulge or protrusion from the vagina. The vagina is made of muscle and connective tissue, and it borders the bladder, urethra, cervix and uterus (or the top/”apex” of the vagina if you have had a hysterectomy), and the rectum. This means that a weakening of the vagina can allow any of these organs to “drop” into, and even out of, the vagina. Prolapse can affect everyday activities such as walking, exercising, emptying your bladder or bowels, or even sexual activity.


Treatment depends on which part of the vagina is prolapsed, to what extent, and a woman's individual needs. It is completely tailored to each woman, as no 2 prolapses are exactly the same. In fact, there is a grading system called the POP-Q (Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification) that is made up of 9 measurements of the vagina and perineum that are taken during a pelvic exam. The POP-Q helps doctors stage prolapse, in order to determine its overall severity. However, there are factors not measured in the POP-Q that are also important in discussing treatment options, like vaginal tissue quality, pain, pressure, associated incontinence, etc. Dr. Sierra’s goal is to evaluate and explain your prolapse, and then discuss which treatment option(s) makes the most sense for you.

You ultimately decide what treatment, if any, is the best for your body. In general, treatment is initiated when quality of life is impacted. There are surgical and non-surgical solutions.

Pessaries are non-surgical support devices that act as a barrier to prevent the bulge from falling beyond the opening of the vagina. Dr. Sierra can fit you with a pessary that is comfortable and provides the reinforcement you need to enjoy your everyday activities.

Learn more about Types of Pessaries

There are a wide variety of surgeries that fix prolapse, because no vagina and therefore no prolapse is exactly the same. These include vaginal, minimally invasive, and abdominal surgical approaches. Minimally invasive surgery can include the aid of the daVinci Robotic Surgical System. Mesh may also be used to augment (strengthen) prolapse repairs, but some surgeries do not use any mesh at all. Often, treatment for incontinence can also be surgically addressed at the same time.

Dr. Sierra can discuss the differences between these surgical options with you, and looks forward to designing an individual treatment plan for your prolapse. Please contact us and schedule your consultation with Dr. Tania Sierra.

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